Les élections américaines

04/11/2020

Les ELECTIONS AMERICAINES 

elections us

Aujourd’hui le 4 novembre a lieu le dépouillage des élections présidentielles américaines qui ont eu lieu hier au 3 novembre. Et contrairement aux élections précédentes de 2016, nous ne connaissons pas encore le gagnant du duel opposant Donald Trump et Joe Biden dans la course à la maison blanche, où le mandat du président dure 4 ans.

 

Cette année, plus que les précédentes élections, le vote par correspondance a été massivement utilisé en raison de la pandémie. Alors que certains bureaux avaient comptabilisé les votes par correspondance avant le 3 novembre, d’autres états ont dépouillé les votes à partir de cette date seulement. Ce sont donc des millions de votes qui sont en train d’être dépouillés. Les citoyens américains à l’étranger ont aussi pu voter par correspondance.

 

C’est un suspense immense qui tient en haleine la population américaine car les écarts sont très faibles et la présidence de Donald Trump fait l’objet de nombreuses controverses. 

 

Une particularité du système de vote américain : le principe des grands électeurs ou de collège électoral. Chaque état tient un nombre de votes électoraux qui y sont attribués. Les résultats du vote populaire des citoyens sont représentés par les grands électeurs. Par exemple, la Californie détient 55 grands électeurs. La majorité des californiens ont voté pour Biden ; cela fait donc 55 votes électoraux pour Biden. 

Ainsi une majorité des votes électoraux donne le nombre de grand électeurs sauf dans 2 états, le Maine et le Nebraska, qui pratiquent la proportionnalité. Par exemple, dans le Maine, qui détient 4 grands électeurs, 75 % auraient voté pour Biden et 25 % pour Trump, ce qui ferait 3 votes électoraux pour Biden et un pour Trump. 

 

Les états clés (swing states en anglais) sont les états qui peuvent basculer dans un camp comme dans l’autre : toute l’Amérique a les yeux rivés sur les résultats de la Pennsylvanie, du Wisconsin ou du Michigan.

 

En 2016, Hillary Clinton avait perdu les élections alors qu’elle comptabilisait plus de voix pour elle. Cette année, les estimations montrent que Trump aurait recueilli plus de voix mais a moins de grands électeurs.

 

La réponse devrait en principe arriver d’ici un à deux jours. A suivre !

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