Langage ou communication ?

09/09/2020

Qu'est-ce que le langage ?

Qu'est-ce que le langage ? Car il est vrai que tous les animaux - dont les humains - communiquent d'une certaine façon. C'est-à-dire, qu'est-ce qui distingue le langage humain et donc le sort humain ? Sa complexité ? Ou bien sa créativité ? Peut-être son pouvoir de réflexion ? Effectivement, c'est un peu tout ça. langage communication

« Design features »

En effet, le linguiste et anthropologue américain Charles Hockett a défini une série de 16 design features, ou traits caractéristiques du langage humain. Notamment, Hockett fait la distinction entre langage et communication. Bien que tous les animaux communiquent d’une certaine façon, un système de communication doit posséder toutes les caractéristiques citées ci-bas afin de constituer une langue :

  1. Dualité : la capacité à produire des combinaisons infinies à partir d’un nombre fini de phonèmes (unités de son) et de mots
  2. Productivité : la capacité à générer ou à comprendre des messages entièrement nouveaux
  3. Arbitrarité : le lien entre les éléments et ce à quoi ils se réfèrent est arbitraire (les onomatopées en sont des exceptions)
  4. Interchangeabilité : chaque membre de l’espèce peut comprendre et produire le message
  5. Spécialisation : les signaux sont produits intentionnellement à des fins de communication
  6. Déplacement : la possibilité de se référer à des évènements/choses éloignés dans le temps/l’espace
  7. Transmission culturelle : la transmission se fait par un apprentissage culturel et non génétique
  8. Canal vocal-auditif : les signaux du langage sont produits avec les différentes composantes du tractus vocal et perçus par le système auditif
  9. Transmission par diffusion : la transmission des signaux de communication se fait dans toutes les directions
  10. Extinction rapide du signal : le signal ne persiste pas dans le temps/l’espace
  11. Retour total : chaque émetteur perçoit les signaux qu’il produit
  12. Sémanticité : il existe un lien fixe entre les signaux et ce à quoi ils se réfèrent
  13. Caractère discret : les messages sont constitués d’éléments distincts ayant des significations fixes
  14. Prévarication : les messages peuvent être faux ou dépourvus de sens
  15. Réflexivité : un locuteur peut communiquer sur la communication elle-même
  16. Apprenabilité : on peut apprendre et enseigner une langue (même autre que la sienne)

langage communication 2Capacité innée d'acquisition de langue

De plus, le linguiste américain Noam Chomsky, aussi connu comme « le père de la linguistique moderne », pensait que les humains avaient une capacité innée à apprendre le langage. De ce fait, bien que les enfants soient exposés à un nombre limité de locutions et de combinaisons linguistiques, ils sont toujours capables de produire des phrases nouvelles qu’ils n’ont ni produites ni entendues auparavant.

Par conséquent, la capacité d’acquisition linguistique est bien innée. De même, un enfant adopté dans un autre pays que son pays de naissance apprend à parler la langue de son pays d'adoption sans la moindre lacune ou trace qui trahirait sa naissance étrangère.

Pourtant, d’autres linguistes ont argumenté que toute connaissance dont le langage, dépendait entièrement des stimuli externes. De ce fait, on n'apprend que ce qu'on nous enseigne. Ainsi, il n'y a pas de « grammaire universelle », le terme qui désigne le concept de capacité linguistique génétique de Chomsky.

Et vous, vous en pensez quoi ?

Références :

Language Evolution: Why Hockett’s Design Features are a Non-Starter, Slawomir Wacewicz and Przemysław Żywiczyński, Biosemiotics, July 19, 2014.

Human language and animal communication, Jason Merchant, University of Chicago, April 4, 2006.

Langage - 16 traits caractéristiques du langage humain, Charles Hockett, Andrea Copetti, Quizlet.

Hockett's design features, Wikipedia.

Noam Chomsky, Wikipedia.

 

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